#1-Due to the coronovirus, many people have had to
forfeit their zechus and obligation to daven with
a Minyan. Boruch Hashem, we have returned to
the Shuls and can now daven with a minyan, but
some people got accustomed to davening at
home and it is hard for them to return to the Shul.
Even out of those who returned, many people
unfortunately do not know the detailed halachos
of davening with a minyan. There is an obligation
to pray with a Tzibur!
Advantages of Tefilah Betzibur
- Does not come back emptyhanded. The Medrash
:says” וא ני תפלתי לך ה’ עת רצון” ,Posuk the on
“Because Dovid was davening alone, he required
‘רצון עת]’a favorable time]. However, the Tefilah
of a Tzibur does not come back emptyhanded. An
individual’s Tefilah needs the help of the
Malachim, but a Tzibur’s does not need them, as
the Rashi states [Sota 33a] Hashem does not
detest public Tefilah.
- Other advantages. An individual’s Tefilah is
examined to see if there is any reason to
disqualify it, but a public Tefilah is not examined.
An individual’s Tefilah needs extra concentration
with awe, fear, and self-surrender, but a Tefilah
with a minyan is accepted. It is also a segulah to
make a livelihood, as the Verse states: ” ולעבדו
לבבכם בכל] “Avodah of the heart is Tefilah, and
“לבבכם “is plural, signifying public Tefilah] is
followed by, “בעתו ארצכם מטר ונתתי “.One will not
lose out financially by davening with a minyan.
- Sinner’s Tefilah. Even a sinner’s Tefilah is heard
when it is with a minyan [Rambam Tefilah 8:1].
An allegory: People were making a crown for the
king and a certain poor person made his own
contribution. Will the king say, “I will not accept
the crown because of the poor person”? He
immediately took it and put it on his head.
Similarly, if ten tzaddikim are standing in Tefilah
and a Rasha stands among them, will Hashem
say, “I will not accept your prayer because of the
rasha”? [Midrash Eicha 3:8]. It has been said that
the word “tzibbur” is an acronym for tzaddikim,
Obligation to Daven with a Minyan
- Every person should make every possible effort to
daven all Tefilos with a minyan [S”A 90:9], as
Tefilah Betzibur is desired and accepted by
Hashem [MB 52:3]. Some Poskim hold that it is a
full-fledged obligation as part of the Mitzvah of
Tefilah, not just something to strive for [Igeros
Moshe vol. 2 Siman 7]. Some say that when the
Shulchan Aruch wrote that a person should
“strive,” he meant one should strive to daven
specifically in a shul as opposed to at home, but
Tefilah Betzibur is an absolute obligation
[Minchas Yitschak vol. 7 Siman 6].
Answering Devarim Shebikdushah
- Apart from the obligation of praying with a
Minyan, davening with ten men also enables a
person to answer Devarim Shebikdushah,
thereby fulfilling the obligation of sanctifying
Hashem as stated: [Brachos 21b] ” בתוך ונקדשתי
Tefilah in a Shul
- There is also special importance attached to
davening in a shul. Thus, even if a person for some
reason must daven alone, it is preferable to daven
in a shul. Nevertheless, praying with a minyan at
home is preferable to praying alone in a shul [MB
What Is Considered Tefilah Betzibbur?
- Praying with a Minyan is accomplished only if
davening together Shmoneh Esrei with ten adults
[MB 90:128]. It is then possible to go tu Shul daily
and not being considered praying with a Minyan,
if one goes constantly late and does not daven
Shmoneh Esrei together with the Minyan.
- Starting together. The best possible fulfillment of
Tefilah betzibur is praying Shmoneh Esrei
together with the shliach tzibbur, [MB 66:35].
Being a few seconds early or late is not a problem
- First brochoh. Some poskim hold that starting
Shmoneh Esrei while the tzibbur is in the middle
of the first brochoh of Shmoneh Esrei is also
considered the ideal Tefilah betzibur [Grashaz
Halichos Shlomo 8:7].
- First three brochos. Some Poskim say it is still
considered praying with a Minyan if one starts
while the Tzibur is within the first three Brochos.
- Still in Shmoneh Esrei. Some poskim hold that if
one starts while the tzibbur is still praying
Shmoneh Esrei, regardless where they hold, one
is fulfilling the Mitzva of praying with a Minyan,
[Igeros Moshe Vol. 3 Siman 4].
- Together with the shliach tzibbur. Most poskim
hold that davening word for word along with the
shliach tzibur is not considered Tefilah betzibur
[Pri Megadim A”A 52:1];
By Rabbi Shimon Fridmann * email@example.com * 305.985.3461
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